Wednesday, November 28, 2012

LOTs dan HOTs


LOTs:

Resnick (1987) Lower-order thinking (LOT) is often characterized by the recall of information or the application of concepts or knowledge to familiar situations and contexts.

Schmalz (1973) LOT tasks requires a student “… to recall a fact,  perform  a  simple  operation,  or  solve  a  familiar  type  of  problem.  It  does  not  require  the student to work outside the familiar”

Senk, Beckman, & Thompson (1997) LOT is involved when students are solving tasks where the solution requires applying a well-known algorithm, often with no justification, explanation, or proof required, and where only a single correct answer is possible

Thompson 2008 generally characterized LOT as solving tasks while working in familiar situations and contexts; or, applying algorithms already familiar to the student.

HOTs :

Resnick (1987) characterized   higher-order   thinking   (HOT)   as   “non-algorithmic.” 

Stein  and  Lane  (1996) describe  HOT  as  “the  use  of  complex,  non-algorithmic thinking to solve a task in which there is not a predictable, well-rehearsed approach or pathway  explicitly suggested by the task, task instruction, or a worked  out  example.”

Senk, et al (1997) characterized HOT as solving tasks where no algorithm has been taught, where justification  or explanation are required, and  where  more than  one solution  may be possible.  

Thompson (2008) generally characterized HOT  involves  solving  tasks  where  an  algorithm  has  not  been  taught  or  using  known algorithms while working in unfamiliar contexts or situations.

Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi pada kebiasaannya dirujuk kepada EMPAT aras teratas dalam taksonomi Bloom; iaitu mengaplikasi, menganalisa, menilai dan merekacipta.

Taksonomi kognitif (Revised Bloom)

Aras 1 : Mengetahui

            Mengingati kembali atau mengenalpasti maklumat yang spesifik
            You tell me; I can tell it back to you

Aras 2 : Memahami
           
Menterjemahkan bahan atau idea daripada satu bentuk ke bentuk lain;
mentaksir bahan atau idea, menganggar trend masa depan
I can tell it back to you and I can explain it

Aras 3 : Mengapalikasi

            Menggunakan bahan / idea / strategi / konsep / prinsip / teori dalam situasi baru
            I can tell it back, explain, give examples, and DO something with it.

Aras 4 : Menganalisis

            Mengasingkan maklumat kepada komponen-komponennya untuk memahami dan
            membuat perhubungan antara komponen
I can tell, explain, apply, give examples and take it apart and examine different
aspects
 
Aras 5 : Menilai
           
Mewajarkan keputusan atau tindakan yang telah diambil ataupun menilai idea /bahan / maklumat / kaedah berdasarkan criteria yang spesifik.
I can tell, explain, give example, apply, take apart and examine, put together with new ways and judge its value, I can do it with several complex ideas and choose
the best one.


Aras 6 : Merekacipta
            Menggabungkan idea / komponen dengan menggunakan idea / komponen dengan
            menggunakan pemikiran yang kreatif untuk menghasilkan idea / struktur baru
            I can plan, apply, take apart, put it together with other things I know to produce,
            invent, design, construct.

(Gerak gempur HOTsSM, 2012)

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